Europe, but outside the European Union, and has some differences in terms of the consumers, including the culture and the language. When designing a communications plan for the launch of the wine for these two countries the first consideration will be whether to adopt a standardized or a localized strategy. If there is a standardized approach there are some advantages, standardization is likely to result in lower costs and ensure that the message across the different countries is presented in a uniform. ISO intends to help standardize the quality and safety of products bought and sold between two companies, either domestic or abroad.
Its guiding principles. Goizueta switched from a strategy that emphasized localization towards one that emphasized global standardization? Standardization of Language Essay Words 4 Pages. Standardization of Language Language is a method in which individuals communicate to get their opinion and ideas across to the other party. It varies in its communication methods; it can be verbal and physical i.
Therefore I believe that language should be standardized under specific rules, regulations that support the language and prevent merging with other languages to avoid cultural assimilation. However, this standardization does not discriminate or disallow any other language to be practiced, by accepting diversity i. From my point of view, I believe that language is dynamic, it changes with time. An example of this are African-Arab countries, which went through colonization, speaker tongues have been altered and manipulated.
African-Arab speakers have borrowed French terms which are currently used and accepted as everyday words. The Omani culture is significantly related to the language, our greetings have to be in Arabic or else misinterpretation occurs. Thus they believe that losing your language is also losing your culture.
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Religion is an important factor in determining why it is a subject of importance, this due to the link of the language to the holy Quran. Diversity is what I stand for, without diversity individuals are not exposed to the outside world, thus they view outsiders as aliens, and they are not accepted into their culture. I believe that diversity should be encouraged, as long it does not interfere with the widely spoken language that have previously existed.
This is the case with anglicized Arabic. Therefore, I believe that a balance should be. Show More. Read More. In this last case, as in normal photos, the sampling rate refers to the resolution of the image, often measured in pixels per inch. Digitizing is the primary way of storing images in a form suitable for transmission and computer processing, whether scanned from two-dimensional analog originals or captured using an image sensor -equipped device such as a digital camera , tomographical instrument such as a CAT scanner , or acquiring precise dimensions from a real-world object, such as a car , using a 3D scanning device.
Digitizing is central to making digital representations of geographical features, using raster or vector images, in a geographic information system , i. While this usage is technically inaccurate, it originates with the previously proper use of the term to describe that part of the process involving digitization of analog sources, such as printed pictures and brochures, before uploading to target databases.
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Digitizing may also used in the field of apparel, where an image may be recreated with the help of embroidery digitizing software tools and saved as embroidery machine code. This machine code is fed into an embroidery machine and applied to the fabric. The most supported format is DST file. Apparel companies also digitize clothing patterns [ citation needed ] . Analog signals are continuous electrical signals; digital signals are non-continuous.
Analog signal can be converted to digital signal by ADC. Nearly all recorded music has been digitized. The handling of an analog signal becomes easy [ according to whom? The conversion process of analog to digital consists of two processes: sampling and quantizing.
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Digitization of personal multimedia, such as home movies , slides , and photographs is a popular method of preserving and sharing older repositories. Slides and photographs may be scanned using an image scanner , but videos are more difficult. At most 1 in 20 texts have been digitized as of Older print books are being scanned and optical character recognition technologies have been applied by academic and public libraries, foundations, and private companies like Google. Unpublished text documents on paper, which have some enduring historical or research value are being digitized by libraries and archives , though frequently at a much slower rate than for books see digital libraries.
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In many cases, archives have replaced microfilming with digitization as a means of preserving and providing access to unique documents. This shift to digitization in the contemporary media world has created implications for traditional mass media products.
However, these "limitations are still very unclear". For example, the Internet has transformed many communication norms, creating more efficiency for not only individuals, but also for businesses. However, McQuail suggests traditional media have also benefited greatly from new media, allowing more effective and efficient resources available.
Nowadays, the growing pace of innovations in electronics drives to new solutions for energy and information transfer to enhance its speed, efficiency and reliability. For most devices, this solution is a transition from analog to digital. Possibly the most prominent example of such conversion is the modern digital computer. But the wires in all digital systems still remain analog. Digital wire becomes indispensable for providing efficient, robust, adaptable, and cost effective energy supply.
Presently, no one knows, however, how it is supposed to work or what technology would be able to create such a device. In the context of libraries, archives, and museums, digitization is a means of creating digital surrogates of analog materials, such as books, newspapers, microfilm and videotapes, offers a variety of benefits, including increasing access, especially for patrons at a distance; contributing to collection development, through collaborative initiatives; enhancing the potential for research and education; and supporting preservation activities.
For sounds, digitization of legacy analogue recordings is essential insurance against technological obsolescence. The prevalent Brittle Books issue facing libraries across the world is being addressed with a digital solution for long term book preservation. Deterioration may advance to a point where a book is completely unusable. In theory, if these widely circulated titles are not treated with de-acidification processes, the materials upon those acid pages will be lost. As digital technology evolves, it is increasingly preferred as a method of preserving these materials, mainly because it can provide easier access points and significantly reduce the need for physical storage space.
Cambridge University Library is working on the Cambridge Digital Library , which will initially contain digitised versions of many of its most important works relating to science and religion. Google, Inc.
There is a common misconception that to digitize something is the same as digital preservation. To digitize something is to convert something from an analog into a digital format. This is essentially the first step in digital preservation. To digitally preserve something is to maintain it over a long period of time. Computers are no longer made with them, and obtaining the hardware to convert a file from an obsolete format to a newer one can be expensive. As a result, the upgrading process must take place every 2 to 5 years,  or as newer technology becomes affordable, but before older technology becomes unobtainable.
The Library of Congress provides numerous resources and tips for individuals looking to practice digitization and digital preservation for their personal collections. Digital preservation can also apply to born-digital material. An example of something that is born-digital is a Microsoft Word document saved as a. In contrast, digitization only applies exclusively to analog materials. Born-digital materials present a unique challenge to digital preservation not only due to technological obsolescence but also because of the inherently unstable nature of digital storage and maintenance.
Most websites last between 2. Many libraries, archives, and museums, as well as other institutions struggle with catching up and staying current in regards to both digitization and digital preservation.
Multimedia Compression Techniques
Digitization is a time-consuming process, particularly depending on the condition of the holdings prior to being digitized. Some materials are so fragile that undergoing the process of digitization could damage them irreparably; light from a scanner can damage old photographs and documents. Despite potential damage, one reason for digitizing some materials is because they are so heavily used that digitization will help to preserve the original copy long past what its life would have been as a physical holding. Digitization can also be quite expensive. Institutions want the best image quality in digital copies so that when they are converted from one format to another over time only a high-quality copy is maintained.
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Smaller institutions may not be able to afford such equipment. Manpower at many facilities also limits how much material can be digitized.
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Archivists and librarians must have an idea of what their patrons wish to see most and try to prioritize and meet those needs digitally. Labour resources and funding also limit digital preservation in many institutions. The cost of upgrading hardware or software every few years can be prohibitively expensive. Training is another issue, since many librarians and archivists do not have a computer science background. Intellectual control of digital holdings presents yet another issue which sometimes occurs when the physical holdings have not yet been entirely processed. One suggested timeframe for completely transcribing digital holdings was every ten to twenty years, making the process an ongoing and time-consuming one.
Digital reformatting is the process of converting analogue materials into a digital format as a surrogate of the original. The digital surrogates perform a preservation function by reducing or eliminating the use of the original. Digital reformatting is guided by established best practices to ensure that materials are being converted at the highest quality. The Library of Congress has been actively reformatting materials for its American Memory project and developed best standards and practices pertaining to book handling during the digitization process, scanning resolutions, and preferred file formats.
A list of archival standards for digital preservation can be found on the ARL website.