Click here for an activity for a faculty meeting on how to conduct class meetings. Inevitably, some students and teachers bring a number of problems to our schools and classrooms each day which may result in frustration, anger, fear, disappointment, rejection, jealousy, hunger, etc. In some instances, they may encounter conflicts before they leave home in the morning. Some of the problems students bring into the school environment can be acknowledged and addressed using conflict resolution techniques after class either with or without the assistance of an adult. The effective resolution of many classroom conflicts does not have to require the active involvement of teachers.
In some instances, students can solve their own disputes once they have been taught basic problem-solving skills. Teachers can use age-appropriate problem-solving models to teach all students in their classrooms how to use conflict resolution strategies on their own to resolve simple disputes. For example, in K-2 the age-appropriate model is likely to be the ability to talk about the problem and label basic feelings. In K students can be taught the basics of cooperative negotiation.
In middle and high school, the use of elaborate problem-solving, negotiation and mediation models is possible. One approach for using conflict resolution in the classroom with middle school students is the "conflict resolution corner" model. Age-appropriate negotiation models can be used during these encounters. Click here for more information on how to set up a Peace Table or Conflict Resolution Corner in your classroom. Another approach is to establish a classroom mediation program as discussed in detail on Day 2 of the course. This approach requires the teacher to teach all students conflict management skills, choose a process and set up a system for using these skills to resolve classroom conflicts.
If peer mediation does not resolve the conflict, the teacher determines the next appropriate step. According to the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Heath, children and youth make healthier lifestyle choices if they feel connected to others at home and at school. This scenario illustrates how a sensitive, observant administrator channels the talents of troubled youth in a positive direction — one that helps them reconnect to the school, while at the same time helps the school staff enhance the learning environment.
It can be downloaded at no cost at: www. If students' experience a non-threatening classroom environment where cooperation is encouraged, trust is promoted, and group interaction is frequent, they will have more opportunities to practice and reasons to choose non-violent conflict resolution strategies over aggression and violence. Cooperative learning provides an opportunity for students to use and learn conflict management skills such as understanding, analyzing, evaluating, communicating, and problem solving.
It also helps them in students utilizing and refining their higher order cognitive abilities. Using this strategy, students are paired in teams to collectively interpret and learn information. Click here for an activity for a faculty meeting on cooperative discipline. The Teaching Students to be Peacemakers TSPM approach focuses on classroom management strategies utilizing cooperative learning , staff development, and student training. A brief summary of the staff development components and student training include:. The Educators for Social Responsibility ESR Program recommends a need assessments, the creation of steering committee, the creation of a multi-year implementation plan, and staff training.
A brief summary of the staff development suggested includes: Staff Development. The most effective school conflict management program is the peaceable school or comprehensive school conflict management program approach. A comprehensive program offers members of the school and local communities the opportunity to learn, practice and model effective conflict management skills. Ideally it becomes a central component of the daily operations of the school. It includes everything from how parents and guests are greeted when they enter the school building to how discipline is addressed. It addresses how educators manage their classrooms, the use of positive conflict management strategies being modeled by all adults in the school building, both with youth and other school community staff, and strategies for teaching conflict management skills to youth.
A comprehensive program can not be implemented overnight, but it can be implemented in phases. The first phase may include a peer mediation program or a few teachers piloting conflict management in their classroom implementing the peaceable classroom approach or curriculum infusion approach. As more and more students, teachers and parents experience the benefits of teaching conflict management, the program can be expanded to all classrooms, throughout the school community into the school discipline procedures and mission statements, and throughout the daily operations of the school community.
Schools provide a readily accessible opportunity to teach young people effective, non-violent conflict resolution skills.
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Staff development programs, parent education programs, civic organization presentations, and church-sponsored programs can provide opportunities to teach adults effective conflict resolution skills. Examples of some of the approaches that can be implemented to implement conflict management in classrooms, schools and communities were described above. Although different schools and communities may establish different goals and objectives for their conflict management programs, there are several characteristics of successful programs.
Goals and objectives that are developed and supported by everyone - students, administrators, teachers, lunch and recess supervisors, bus drivers, parents, and community members-provide direction and establish a climate which supports the program. A more detailed review of these elements of a successful program are described in more detail below.
Click here for a PowerPoint presentation for staff development on best practices as listed below.
Effective negotiating skills and negotiation tactics for use in conflict resolution
Using a conflict management program only garners desired results if the implementation strategy is based upon best practices. Research shows that programs adopted and poorly implemented may be worse than not having a conflict management program at all.
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What are some characteristics of effectively implemented programs? There are a variety of best practices that have been identified that should be incorporated into your implementation strategy regardless of the specific program model you adopt.
This includes:. Click here for a sample needs assessment questionnaire and survey that can be used with your staff. Time is important in the creation of a comprehensive program. It is a commodity which many times is ultimately allotted by the administrator. The treaty required Spain to cede Florida in return for the U.
It also set the western boundary of the Louisiana Purchase as the line running northwesterly from the mouth of the Sabine River. In , after a decade of armed struggle, Mexico obtained independence from Spain. Mexico continued the Spanish practice of encouraging North Americans to settle the sparsely populated area in its northern provinces. Most of the settlers moving to the province of Texas were slave holders seeking the fertile soil along the Gulf Coast to grow cotton.
Although the settlers were required by law to become Roman Catholic and Mexican citizens, most of the settlers from the United States were Protestant and thought of themselves as North Americans. By , the North American population in Texas was twice as large as the Mexican population. Soon after Mexican independence, the United States offered to purchase the Texas territory from Mexico. Mexico rejected the offer. Concerned about the growing number of Anglo-Americans in Texas, the Mexican government abolished slavery in in an attempt to discourage further immigration.
The Anglos in Texas regarded this as a violation of their rights under the Mexican Constitution.
Dealing with Oppositional Parents
Skirmishes began in between Texans and local Mexican soldiers. The Anglos in Texas set up a provisional government and their own army.
To suppress this insurgency, Santa Anna led a Mexican army of five thousand into Texas in and killed the two hundred Texans defending the old Alamo mission in San Antonio. The slaughter infuriated many North Americans. Joined by hundreds of volunteers, the Texan army defeated the Mexicans at San Jacinto, captured Santa Anna, and extracted a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas, with the Rio Grande rather than the traditional border of the Nueces River as the southwestern border.
Mexico immediately repudiated this agreement. Texas almost immediately sought annexation to the United States; however, annexation was problematic because of northern opposition to the expansion of slavery. Meanwhile, other issues heightened tensions between the United States and Mexico. The claims that U. Mexican forays into Texas and the harsh treatment of Texan prisoners captured in border raids created additional friction. Mexican fears of U. Prodded by Britain and France, he recognized the independence of Texas in an effort to prevent U. But it was too late: Just before leaving office, U.
Mexico broke off diplomatic relations with the United States but did not take military action.
Case Studies: Examples of Conflict Resolution
Newly installed U. In an effort to salvage national pride, President Herrera sent a confidential note to the U. In October , President Polk sent John Slidell on a secret mission to Mexico with instructions to negotiate the Texas boundary issues and the outstanding claims against Mexico by U.